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8.

8.1. .

[Langdon, 1970 , b; Langdon and Birdsall, 1970],

1968 -1970 . .

. , . . , , , . , . , - . , , - . , , . , . , , . .

, . , . , , " , , . . . 10 , . . . ,

, .

1963 . , [Yu . ., 1965; Hockney, 1965, 1966] , , , - , , , . , , . , , ; , - [Hockney, 1966]. , [Dunn and , 1963; Burger . ., 1965; Buneman and Dunn, 1966]. . , [Buneman, 1967]. , , .

[Birdsall . ., 1968; Birdsall and Fuss, 1968, 1969; Morse and Nielsen, 1968, 1969; Boris and Roberts, 1969; Alder e. a., 1970]. , 1968 . - . .

, . , , , , , .

.

, . , . . , , . , , . . . . . [Birdsall . ., 1968; Hockney, 1968, 1970; Montgomery and Nielson, 1970; Okuda, 1970, 19726].

. , , .

, - . , , . , , -, .

. [, 1968; Langdon and Birdsall, 1970; Okuda and Birdsall, 1970], [, 1968; Longdon and Birdsall, 1970; Okuda and Birdsall, 1970]. [-, 1967].

- , . , , [Lindman, 1970; Langdon, 1970,].

[Langdon, 1979]. , . , . , .

, .

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