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4.7.

, , .

. , - . ( )

, [Fried and Conte, 1961].

:

. 4.7. )

. 4.8. , . 4.7, [Langdon and Birdsall, 1970]

( , , . . 4.7. , (. 4.8).

. , . , , k. , , , . 4.1. , , . ; , , ; . .

( , ). [Langdon and Birdsall, 1970; Okuda and Birdsall, 1970],

. 4.9. ) NGP () ,

II , , , , . .

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