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16.6 : ;

- , ,


16.2. (. )

. 16.3. .

. , . 16.3. , ( , ). , , . , [Byers, 1970], , .

, . , . [Byers, 1970]; . . 16.4 [Denavit, 1980]. , , , , (. ), ( , [Denavit]). X . , 10 (.. , .

. 16.4. 0,377. - ). ( Denavit, 1980])

, - . , . . - . , [Dawson, 1960], [Denavit, 1972, 1974].

( !) [Gitomer, Adam, 1976]. ( ). (. 16.5). ( 0,003. 20 ( . , .

. 16.5. ( )

. 18.6.

, , .

, . , (, , , . - . [Gitomer, Adam, 1976]. , . , - , 0,003 (. 16.6).

. . ,

-.

. , - ( ). [Denavit, Kruer, 1971, 1980], 100 , , , , -, 1600 , . [Chen] , ( . 16.6) , . , , ; 16 384 (. . 16.6). , , , , , . 16.4.

[Denavit, 1972] , , . [Matsuda, Crawford, 1975], ( ); , (. . 16.4), .

.

. 16.7. (2) (5) (1).

[Birdsall, Fuss, 1969] ; ( , -, . [Byers, Grewal, 1970], X 64 . ( ( ), , ,

, . 9 (. 16.7). , (16.6) (16.11) Rs. , [Kim, Otani, Cohen, 1980] . , ( . . , ( ) , , . , ,

(16.15) , , :

, ; , , , , . , :

, 16.6 , , .

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