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12.5.

.

. , ,

. , . [ ( ) , . , , .] (12.34)

, . , . , , . , , . .

, , , . . (12.35) . , (12.36),

:

, , , :

( , , , ),

. , , :

. . (

, , . , .)

. () , . , .

, . . (9.21) ,

, , .

, , , (. 12.5)

(12.39). ,

, ,

(12.40) (12.37) (12.18), , ( ).

. , . , , ,

[ (12.46)] (. 12.8).

. (12.40), (12.46), (12.48), (12.49) (12.22) - :

( [Lenard, 1960; Balescu, 1960; Guernsey, 1962]). (12.50)

(. . 10) , ,

(12.4) (. 12.7).

, , (. 12.8).

- , , .

, [Langdon, Birdsall, 1970; Okuda, Birdsall, 1970], - [Hockney, 1966, 1971; Hockney, Eastwood, 1981]. , .

(. )

(. )

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