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12.3.

, .

. . ,

-

-.

, , , . . . , , . :

.

, (12.13) (8.65). : , . , , , .

(. 12.1)

(12.14). (12.15)

, ,

- , . , . (12.2), , [Hubbard, 1961]. :

(12.15) (. 12.2),

. , , . .

. ,

(. . 10). (. 12.3)

-

(12.15) . k.

. , . [Langdon, 1976].

1) - . (12.19) . 10 - :

- . 9.2 (12.4)

(12.21), ( ); , - .

(12.18). - (12.21). , , (12.21),

2) . , . (12.21):

, . 12.1,

(

. 12.1. , (12.24) .

, . . 8 10) ( ) (12.24).

(12.6). , - [, , , . (12.20) 8.4 8.7]. (12.256) .

( ) . , ( ) . (12.6) (12.256), , ( ), (). .

, , 12.2, . : , (. 12.4).

3) ,

, ,

,

. . , , , :

, , [Okuda, 1972].

. ( , . . 15.) , .

4) , . , , . . , .

(12.18)

, [Langdon, 1979]

(12.28), [Lighthill, 1962]. 9.24 , (12.29) ( )

, , .

, , , .

5) . (12.27). . . (12.18). (12.29)

, , 12.2. , . , , :

(12.32) , (12.29)

, [Hockney, 1966].

[Abe et al., 1975] .

, (. . 11)

, , 3 , . ( ), ,

, - . , - , , .

(. )

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